Terms and Definitions

27 August 2019  |  Data Methodology
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Fossil fuel export emissions:

Fossil fuel export emissions are defined as the emissions from fossil fuel exports that are fully combusted. It is assumed that all fossil fuel exported is combusted.

Global carbon budget:

See explainer ‘Carbon budgets and national emissions’

Hard coal

Hard coal is the term used for black coal, or the sum of thermal and metallurgic coal. A more accurate definition is given by the IEA: hard coal is ‘coal of gross calorific value not less than 5732 kcal/kg (24 GJ/t) on an ash-free but moist basis and with a mean random reflectance of vitrinite of at least 0.6 percent’1.


LNG stands for Liquefied Natural gas. LNG is natural gas that is compressed and cooled to -162°C transforming into the liquid phase of natural gas. In the Australian context, all gas exported is LNG.

Remaining global carbon budget

See explainer ‘Carbon budgets and national emissions’


See explainer ‘Reserves and Resources’


See explainer ‘Reserves and Resources’

Territorial emissions

Territorial emissions are defined as ‘greenhouse gas emissions and removals taking place within national territory and offshore areas over which the country has jurisdiction’2.


IEA. IEA Coal Information Statistics. 2016. doi: doi.org/10.1787/coal-data-en

IPCC. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories; 2006. https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/